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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
July-December 2021
Volume 6 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 41-77

Online since Friday, May 6, 2022

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REVIEW ARTICLE  

Insights to oral microbiome from birth to infancy p. 41
Sruthi Chandran, Faizal C Peedikayil
DOI:10.4103/ijpr.ijpr_15_21  
Oral microbiome is the microbial residents found in the human oral cavity. Multiple microorganisms colonize the oral cavity and are distinctive to this niche as they have an excruciating specificity for oral colonization. Facultative anaerobes are the primary colonizers of oral surfaces. Greater microflora species diversity is present in toddlers at 18–24 months of age than at 12 months of age. The imbalance in the microbial flora can lead to oral diseases in children. Poor oral hygiene and diet have a catalytic effect in the progression of early childhood caries. To prevent the occurrence of infections caused by microorganisms in newborns, infants, and toddlers, strict hygiene measures should be adopted by the mother and the caregivers.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Knowledge, attitude, and awareness in parents on the use of physical restraints during children's dental treatment p. 46
Raju Umaji Patil, Amit Kumar Sahu, Aishwarya Bansal, Namita Damle, Sanchita Kashyap
DOI:10.4103/ijpr.ijpr_16_21  
Aim: The aim of the study was to assess knowledge, attitude, and awareness of parents on the use of physical restraints (PRs) for their children during dental treatment. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among more than 100 parents residing in an urban city, whose children were aged between 4 and 10 years. Data were collected using an interview-administered questionnaire that included open- and closed-ended questions. Results: Majority of the parents (61%) encouraged the use of PRs, although maximum number of parents (97%) favored the use of tell-show-do technique over hand-over-mouth exercise. There is good awareness among the parents about bite block (52%) as a PR, whereas the least awareness about papoose board (15%), with the majority preferring holding the child themselves during dental treatment (58%). Conclusion: Majority of parents, regardless of their educational status, favors PRs as a behavior management modality, rather than conscious sedation and general anesthesia.
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A cross-study to evaluate the effect of two methods of oral health education on the oral health status among visually impaired children p. 52
Abhishek Shaji Varghese, Gurusamy Kayalvizhi, R Sajeev, GS Prathima, M Vikneshan, A Selvabalaji
DOI:10.4103/ijpr.ijpr_30_20  
Objectives: Visually impaired children can encounter specific problems like plaque-associated disease which if untreated could result in higher risk. Despite this, there is not much available data authenticating the efficacy of oral health education aids using verbal commands and tactile sensations. Therefore, the present study was aimed to evaluate the use of oral health education aids using verbal instructions through audio and music-assisted toothbrushing system and oral hygiene instructions and brushing methods through braille among visually impaired children and its outcome on their oral health status. Study Design: This cross-sectional study included a total of 50 visually impaired children divided equally into music-assisted toothbrushing method and oral hygiene instructions and brushing method through braille's categories. Oral hygiene status was assessed using Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S), gingival index (GI), and plaque index (PI) at different time intervals. Analysis was performed using Student's t-test, Mann–Whitney U-test, and Welch's t-test. Results: The OHI-S, PI, and GI scores significantly decreased at different time intervals for both the groups (P ≤ 0.001). Intergroup comparison regarding oral hygiene status between the braille and music groups at baseline to 6 months showed a significant improvement (P ≤ 0.001). Conclusions: The current study highlighted an improvement in the oral hygiene status with audio instructions and music-assisted toothbrushing system than braille. Employing these specially framed oral health educations improvised greatly the oral health status in visually impaired children.
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CASE REPORTS Top

Full-mouth rehabilitation of a hydrocephalus patient p. 57
Rupanjali Verma, Manvi Srivastava, Ritu Khanduja
DOI:10.4103/ijpr.ijpr_40_20  
Dentists frequently encounter patients who are either medically, physically, or mentally compromised. One such medically compromised condition is “hydrocephalus.” Hydrocephalus is basically a neurological disorder caused by excessive intracranial pressure due to abnormal accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid within the ventricles or subarachnoid space of the brain and raised intracranial pressure. Ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) is the most commonly used treatment, but ventriculoatrial shunt is another treatment option. To keep the intracranial pressure within normal range, the patients are kept on medications which make them more prone to dental caries. Because of poor oral hygiene, these patients require a regular dental care. This report discusses the dental management process employed for a 5-year-old patient with VPS-treated hydrocephalus.
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Down syndrome with ventricular septal defect – A case report of surgical extraction p. 60
Shankhanil Dev
DOI:10.4103/ijpr.ijpr_46_20  
Down syndrome (DS) is a chromosomal disorder affecting many children across the globe. This disorder often presents cardiac defects such as ventricular septal defect (VSD) and atrial septal defect, which can be a hindrance in providing safe dental treatment in these patients. Effective treatment planning, which includes taking necessary precautions, can help to deliver a comfortable treatment to such patients. This case report is of a pediatric patient of DS along with unrepaired VSD, requiring extraction of a grossly carious nonrestorable posterior tooth.
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Conservative management of traumatized young permanent tooth: A 1-year follow-up p. 63
Toijam Khema Devi, Kusum Bharti, Poornima Tripathi
DOI:10.4103/ijpr.ijpr_17_21  
Traumatic exposure of pulp in immature permanent teeth is most commonly observed in pediatric patients. Preserving the dental pulp is an important factor while treating an incompletely formed root of a traumatized tooth. Cvek pulpotomy is a method which helps in maintaining its vitality by providing a favorable environment for continued root development. This report describes a case of a young patient whose maxillary right central incisor suffered crown fractures because of a traumatic accident in school. Cvek pulpotomy with mineral trioxide aggregate was performed in order to achieve apexogenesis, and the tooth was restored with glass ionomer cement and the tooth fragment was reattached. The patient was recalled at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months.
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Bilateral dental lamina cyst of a newborn infant p. 66
Pooja Singh, Manish Jha, Ruchi Lohia
DOI:10.4103/ijpr.ijpr_34_20  
Dental lamina cyst of infant is a benign lesion of the oral mucosa. Though it is not very rare in occurrence but due to its self limiting nature it is not commonly seen by dentists. This article presents a case of dental lamina cyst in a 2 months- old child.
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Oral health management of a child with hirschsprung's disease: An uncommon clinical entity p. 68
S Ghousia, CS Nyer Firdoose
DOI:10.4103/ijpr.ijpr_32_20  
This article presents a case review of a three years eight months old master with a prediagnosed rare medical condition involving the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), namely Hirschsprung's disease. This medical condition involving GIT ailment and its usual treatment can influence the mouth and the oral environment. This article attempts to present a review of the prediagnosed medical condition and its possible influence on child's overall oral symptoms and signs if any and the management of the same. It is of utmost importance for every dentist seeing children in their operatory to be well-aware of the rare conditions which possibly may have influence on the oral health, its treatment approach, and thereby the outcome of the same in case they encounter such pediatric cases at their chair-side dental practices.
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Management of thumb-sucking by modified thumb-home concept p. 72
Santoshni Samal, Ratna Renu Baliarsingh, Prayas Ray
DOI:10.4103/ijpr.ijpr_1_22  
Thumb-sucking habit is not normal beyond 4 years of age. Before the development of malocclusion, it should be treated considering the psychological needs and other factors. Younger children can be best treated with a thumb guard based on the thumb-home concept. In this case report, a 4-year-old child is managed by thumb guard based on modified thumb-home concept.
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Pyogenic granuloma or hemangioma: An insoluble dilemma p. 75
Santoshni Samal, Mukesh Kumar, Ratna Renu Baliarsingh, Prayas Ray, Manoranjan Mahakur
DOI:10.4103/ijpr.ijpr_4_22  
Pyogenic granuloma (PG) is a tumor-like ulcer that often affects the oral cavity. These lesions usually appear as localized bumps with a moving or pedunculated base and vary in color from reddish, purple, or pinkish, depending on the wound severity. These lesions are more common in boys. It is often difficult to diagnose and treat ulcers. Often, there is a dilemma to correctly differentiate vascular lesions from PG. In this case, a separate diagnosis and management of PG and other vascular lesions of an 11-year-old boy is discussed.
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