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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Evaluation of effectiveness of dental apps in management of child behaviour: A pilot study
Vidyavathi H Patil, Karan Vaid, Niraj S Gokhale, Parin Shah, Madhura Mundada, Shivayogi M Hugar
January-June 2017, 2(1):14-18
DOI:10.4103/ijpr.ijpr_5_17  
Background: We see children from all age groups, be it a toddler to a teenager, stuck up to the mobile phone playing interactive games or even browsing internet entertainment holds a major share in the field of mobile applications, be it from listening to music or playing online games. However, very little has happened in favor of pediatric dentistry or even educating the patients about the procedures of their treatment which can help reduce their fear or apprehension. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of dental apps in the management of child's anxiety and behavior. Materials and Methods: Sixty children (24 girls and 36 boys) were made to use mobile dental app called “My Little Dentist” developed by Tenlogix Games available on the Google Play Store on the android platform of the smartphones. Their anxiety levels were noted before and after playing the game using the face imaging scale. Results: The results were found to be highly significant; 86.67% patients turned from a negative to positive behavior, 11.67% from positive to definitely positive, and 1.67% from definitely negative to negative according to Frankl's behavior rating scale. Conclusion: The mobile dental app was found to be very useful in the dental setup to reduce the fear and anxiety of the pediatric patients.
  9 9,773 1,096
Three-dimensional assessment of root canal morphology of human deciduous molars using cone beam computed tomography: An In vitro Study
N Venugopal Reddy, V Daneswari, Ravi Patil, B Meghana, Ajay Reddy, P Niharika
January-June 2018, 3(1):36-41
DOI:10.4103/ijpr.ijpr_21_17  
Background: Endodontic treatment involves cleaning, shaping, and obturation of the root canal system which requires knowledge of root canal morphology and its commonly occurring variation. Aim: The aim of the present study was to assess the variations in number and morphology of deciduous molar teeth using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) an auxiliary imaging modality. Materials and Methods: A total of ninety recently extracted deciduous molar teeth were collected which are divided into four groups: Group I: mandibular first molars (n = 22), Group II: maxillary first molars (n = 18), Group III: mandibular second molars (n = 21), Group IV: maxillary second molars (n = 29). The length of the roots, angulation of the roots, number of the root canals, curvature of the root canals, and the type of root canals were determined using CBCT. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive statistics were used to find out the frequency, mean, standard deviation, and range of all the five parameters. Results: CBCT showed that the distobuccal root of primary maxillary molars had the greatest angulation, whereas, in deciduous mandibular molars, distal root has the greatest angulation. S-shaped canals were more common in the palatal root of maxillary molars, and curved canals were more common in the mesial root in mandibular molars. Conclusions: CBCT was found to be an effective and accurate diagnostic tool which provides an auxiliary imaging technology to assess the root canal morphology of primary teeth.
  6 6,177 614
Clinical evaluation of rotary system over manual system in deciduous molars: A clinical trial
Prashant Babaji, Vanisha Mehta, Thomas Manjooran
January-June 2019, 4(1):13-16
DOI:10.4103/ijpr.ijpr_27_18  
Background: Primary teeth need special attention since they differ from permanent teeth in canal morphology and tendency for root resorption. The present study was conducted to compare manual and rotary instrumentation techniques in deciduous teeth. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted on 120 patients (boys – 60, girls – 60) in the age range of 5–12 years. Patients were divided into two groups of sixty each. Group I patients were treated with rotary files and Group II patients with manual technique. Time taken for instrumentation and obturating the canals in both groups was recorded. The quality of filling was labeled as optimal, underfilled, and overfilled. Results: The mean instrumentation time in Group I was 12.4 min and in Group II was 18.2 min. Chi-square test showed highly statistically significant difference (P < 0.05). The mean filling time in Group I was 1.4 min and in Group II was 2.6 min. In Group I, in 92%, filling was optimal, whereas in Group II, 76% had optimal filling, 5% in Group I and 14% in Group II had overfilling, and 3% in Group I and 10% in Group II had underfilling. Conclusion: In the present study, we found lesser instrumentation time and filling time with rotary system compared to manual endodontic method.
  6 5,172 726
REVIEW ARTICLE
Laser and its use in pediatric dentistry: A review of literature and a recent update
Sauvik Galui, Shubhabrata Pal, Saikat Mahata, Subrata Saha, Subir Sarkar
January-June 2019, 4(1):1-5
DOI:10.4103/ijpr.ijpr_17_18  
Since last two decades, the use of laser in dentistry evolved in an immense way. Although soft-tissue laser was initially introduced, but with invention of new-generation laser, it is now widely used on dental hard tissue as well. Commonly used laser in dentistry includes neodymium-yttrium aluminum garnet laser, erbium: yttrium aluminum garnet, CO2, erbium chromium:yttrium scandium gallium garnet, holmium:yttrium aluminum garnet, and diode laser. Treating a pediatric patient with laser for oral and dental procedure is beneficial as it is less fearful to the child and better accepted by parents. When a clinician uses the laser for surgical or pulpal procedure, children become more cooperative and thus enhances treatment outcome. It is used for caries prevention, early diagnosis, cavity restoration, management of traumatized teeth, and minor oral surgical procedure in child patients. Although the use of laser may produce certain hazards and need some precautions, its use in pediatric dental practice seems to soon become the gold standard.
  6 16,581 2,726
CASE REPORTS
Esthetic zirconia crown in pedodontics
Amit Khatri
January-June 2017, 2(1):31-33
DOI:10.4103/ijpr.ijpr_24_16  
There are different types of restorations for complete crown coverage. These restoration techniques include polycarbonate crowns, acid etched crown, stainless steel crown (SSC), open–faced SSC with veneer placed on chair side and commercially veneered SSC. Each of these techniques presents technical, functional or esthetic compromises that complicate their efficient and effective usage. Recently, zirconium dioxide ceramic prefabricated crown has been used in the treatment of primary teeth. The choice of full coverage restoration for primary teeth must provide an esthetic appearance in addition to restoring function and durability. This article presents an overview of zirconia crowns in pedodontics and a case study of full coronal restoration using zirconia crown.
  5 15,014 2,126
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Prevalence of three-rooted primary mandibular second molars in Karnataka (South Indian) population
NB Nagaveni, P Poornima, Anila Valsan, Mebin George Mathew
January-June 2018, 3(1):33-35
DOI:10.4103/ijpr.ijpr_23_17  
Background: The occurrence of an extra distal root in primary mandibular first molars is relevant clinically for the delivery of optimal care. However, there have been no studies conducted for establishing the prevalence of same in South Indian population. Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of three-rooted primary mandibular second molars in South Indian children. Materials and Methods: Intraoral periapical radiographs of bilateral primary mandibular second molars, obtained from 77 patients, were investigated for the presence of additional root. A total of 154 primary mandibular second molars were examined. Results: The total occurrence of three-rooted primary mandibular second molar among the study participants was 6.5%. A male:female ratio of 1.5:1 was noted. Three-rooted primary first molar occurrence on the right side was noted to be higher than on the left, with 2.6% having a bilateral occurrence. Conclusion: 6.5% of children have an additional root making it rare entity.
  5 3,535 315
REVIEW ARTICLES
Smart materials-making pediatric dentistry bio-smart
Parul Jain, Rahul Kaul, Subrata Saha, Subir Sarkar
July-December 2017, 2(2):55-59
DOI:10.4103/ijpr.ijpr_8_17  
As of now, there has been no single material in dentistry that fulfills all the requirements of an ideal material. While the search for an “ideal material” continues, a newer generation of materials has been introduced. The adjective “smart” implies that these materials are able to sense changes in their environments and then respond to these changes in predetermined manners – traits that are also found in living organisms. These materials may be altered in a controlled fashion by stimulus such as stress, temperature, moisture, pH, and electric or magnetic field. Some of these are “bio-mimetic” in nature while others are “bio-responsive.” These materials would potentially allow new and groundbreaking dental therapies with a significantly enhanced clinical outcome of the treatment procedures. This paper attempts to highlight some of the currently available “smart materials” in pediatric dentistry which may over the course of years help us move toward a new era of bio-smart dentistry.
  5 18,756 3,054
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Dermatoglyphics: A new diagnostic tool in detection of dental caries in children with special health-care needs
K Veera Kishore Kumar Reddy, K Naveen Kumar, Venket Subramaniyan, Harshini Togaru, Srinivasan Kannaiah, Rohini Reddy
January-June 2018, 3(1):18-22
DOI:10.4103/ijpr.ijpr_34_17  
Introduction: Dermatoglyphics is the scientific study of dermal ridge configurations on palmar and plantar surfaces of the hands and feet. Dermal ridges and primary palate, both are formed during 6th–7th week of intrauterine life; therefore, hereditary and environmental factors causing changes in fingerprint patterns may also lead to dental anomalies. Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate and compare the correlation between dermatoglyphic peculiarities and caries experience in special children. Materials and Methods: A total of 300 children aged 6–16 years were selected using simple random sampling technique. Their fingerprints were recorded with duplicating ink and caries experience was assessed using International Caries Detection and Assessment System criteria. Results: Chi-square test revealed a significant statistical association between the whorl and loop patterns in caries and caries-free groups. The frequency of whorls was found to be more in caries group and frequency of loops more in caries-free group. Conclusion: Dermatoglyphics could be an effective method as an early and noninvasive and early predictor of dental caries in special children so as to initiate the preventive oral health measures at an early age.
  4 5,773 664
Knowledge, attitude, and practices of parents toward their children's oral health: A questionnaire survey in Bhairahawa (Nepal)
Nitin Khanduri, Namrata Singhal, Malay Mitra, Sankalp Rohatgi
July-December 2018, 3(2):59-61
DOI:10.4103/ijpr.ijpr_31_17  
Background and Aim: Parents' knowledge and attitude have a very important role in the maintenance of young children's oral health. The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practices of parents toward their children's oral health. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 parents participated in the study. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire addressing various aspects of knowledge and attitude of parents toward oral health. Results: Majority (75%) of the parents had low knowledge regarding the importance of using fluoridated toothpaste. Only 33% of parents were aware that nighttime bottle feeding can cause dental caries. Conclusion: The level of awareness among parents is relatively low, and there is a need to create more awareness about the knowledge and importance of deciduous teeth, regular dental visits among the society, and implementation of oral health awareness programs for parents.
  3 9,026 1,035
REVIEW ARTICLES
Stretching new boundaries of caries prevention with silver diamine fluoride: A review of literature
Sauvik Galui, Shubhabrata Pal, Sagar Lahu Pabale, Subrata Saha, Subir Sarkar
January-June 2018, 3(1):1-4
DOI:10.4103/ijpr.ijpr_32_17  
Silver diamine fluoride can arrest dental caries and prevents its progression. By doing so, it provides an alternative care path for those patients in whom traditional restorative treatment cannot be done, for example, children lacking cooperating ability. Although silver diamine fluoride had been used as a caries preventive measure in 1970s in Japan, it had not become popular in the other part of the world. Now, many countries have recommend the use of 38% silver diamine fluoride solution for caries prevention as well as for caries arrest. Recently, The American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry provided the guidelines regarding the use of silver diamine fluoride for dental caries management in children and adolescent including those with special healthcare needs.
  3 9,551 1,521
Crowns for primary anterior teeth
Joshua Ng Chor Yang, Geo Mani
July-December 2016, 1(2):75-78
DOI:10.4103/2468-8932.196491  
Esthetic rehabilitation of anterior teeth in young children is a common sight in a dental clinic. Most of these young children report with rampant caries, nursing bottle caries, and fractured tooth due to trauma in the anterior region or even cases of dental caries. A major component while restoring anterior teeth is esthetics, being an important factor, especially in children as it affects their self-esteem and confidence. Also, in children, it can be challenging due to the smaller size of tooth, larger pulp chambers, and not-to-mention issues related to child behavior. Over the years, many types of crowns have been developed and advanced to aid the clinician in rehabilitating deciduous anterior teeth.
  3 14,547 2,075
CASE REPORT
Acrylic crowns for esthetic rehabilitation of primary teeth
Prasad Jathar, Amey Panse, Aniket R Desai
January-June 2018, 3(1):42-45
DOI:10.4103/ijpr.ijpr_10_17  
Grossly destructed anteriors and compromised esthetics are very commonly seen in the early childhood caries. Primary maxillary anterior teeth dominate the physical appearance, and their structural loss affects not only esthetics but also leads to compromised mastication, poor phonetics, development of aberrant oral habits, neuromuscular imbalance, and difficulty in social and psychological adjustment of the child. To prevent this restoration of maxillary anteriors with suitable option is highly expected. One of the options available apart from the routine tooth-colored restorations is the heat cure acrylic crown. This paper focuses the advantages and disadvantages in a way attempt to discuss custom made full coverage restoration, i.e., heat cure acrylic crown for anterior esthetic rehabilitation for pediatric patients.
  2 7,370 711
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Premature loss of primary teeth on arch dimensions in 6- to 10-year-old schoolchildren in Khammam town, Telangana state
N Venugopal Reddy, V Daneswari, G Shruti, Harivinder Reddy, Ajay Reddy, Srikanth Reddy
July-December 2018, 3(2):67-71
DOI:10.4103/ijpr.ijpr_28_17  
Background: The primary dentition plays a very important role in the child's growth and development, not only in terms of speech, chewing, appearance, and prevention of habits but also in the guidance and eruption of permanent teeth. Aim and Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of premature loss of primary teeth in 6- to 10-year-old schoolchildren in Khammam town, Telangana state, India. Settings and Design: A total of 1200 schoolchildren (600 boys and 600 girls) between 6 and 10 years of age were randomly selected for the study. Materials and Methods: An experienced examiner performed all clinical examinations under natural light. Data including age and missing tooth were collected. Alginate impressions of the study population with the missing teeth were taken, and diagnostic casts were prepared. Statistical Analysis: Microsoft Excel/2000 (Microsoft Office XP) data spreadsheet was used and later exported to the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) for Windows (version 10.0). Descriptive statistics were applied, and from the results, Chi-square tests were applied at a level of statistical significance of 5% (P < 0.05). Results: The prevalence of premature loss of primary teeth was 13.5% of the study sample. It was higher in 8-year-olds, and lower right first primary molars were the most commonly affected teeth. Conclusion: The prevalence of premature loss of primary teeth was high, and the lower primary molars were the most commonly missing teeth. Dental caries was main reason for premature loss of primary teeth followed by trauma.
  2 7,552 774
Children's perception towards pediatric dentist attire: An observation study
Dhanalakshmi Ravikumar, Deepa Gurunathan, Shanmugaavel Karthikeyan
July-December 2016, 1(2):49-51
DOI:10.4103/2468-8932.196479  
Background: Studies have shown that children have preference tpwards dentist attire and this can influence their behaviour in dental setup. Aim: The present observational study was done to determine the children's preference and their perception toward pediatric dentist attire. Materials and Methods: A personal interview was done by a single, qualified pediatric dentist among 450 school children after obtaining approval from the school administrator and child's parents. Children aged between 6 and 12 years were participated in this interview. Results: Based on the response, it was observed that most of the children preferred their pediatric dentist to wear white coat and colored scrubs. Children were highly anxious on seeing their dentist with protective wear. Conclusion: This can be utilized to improve the friendly relationship between the child and pediatric dentist.
  2 4,004 427
Establishment of norms of the beta angle to assess the sagittal discrepancy for Chennai population: A prospective study
Vickraman Maruthi, Saravanapandian Kandasamy
July-December 2016, 1(2):52-55
DOI:10.4103/2468-8932.196481  
Background and Objectives: In orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning, the assessment of anteroposterior (AP) discrepancy is of importance to the orthodontist. Both angular and linear measurements have been incorporated into various cephalometric analyses to help the clinician diagnose AP discrepancies and establish the most appropriate treatment plan. Hence, the present study is designed to establish the norms of beta angle to assess the sagittal discrepancy for Chennai population. Materials and Methods: The samples were screened from the records of the patient who visited Orthodontic Department of Saveetha Dental College and Hospital. One hundred fifty pretreatment cephalometric radiographs were subdivided based on ANB, Wits appraisal, and beta angle into skeletal Class I, II, III. The same cephalograms were again classified into skeletal Class I, II, and III based purely on beta angle. A total of 150 subjects were included in the study with the age group between 18 and 22 years old. Results: The analysis of variance showed that the three groups were significantly different (P ≤ 0.001). The Newman-Keuls post hoc test also found the groups to be significantly different. Conclusion: There was statistically significant difference for the mean values for beta angle within the three skeletal patterns (Class I, Class II, and Class III skeletal patterns). There was no statistically significant difference among the mean values of beta angle between Chennai district population and Caucasian norms.
  2 4,887 417
Prevalence of dental caries in school going children of both urban and rural areas in Mahbubnagar district, Telangana state, (India): An epidemiological study
Kola Srikanth Reddy, Harika Rapala, Balaji Kethineni, Harvindher Reddy, Ajay Reddy, Puppala Ravindhar
January-June 2017, 2(1):7-13
DOI:10.4103/2468-8932.205468  
Background: Dental caries is one of the most common oral problems affecting children globally involving the people of all region and society. It can be seen in all age groups of children involving both deciduous and permanent teeth. Dental caries is a lifetime disease, and the highest priority risk group is between 6 and 12 years of age. Aims: The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of dental caries in both primary and permanent dentition among school-going children in Mahbubnagar district. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2000 children in different areas of Mahbubnagar district in the age group of 6–12 years. The dental caries status was assessed by decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT)/dmft index using the World Health Organization criteria 1997. Collected data from each patient are subjected to statistical analysis to know the prevalence of dental caries. Results: Dental caries in both primary dentition and permanent dentition was 64.2% and 26.6%, respectively. The prevalence of dental caries in primary dentition was more in 7–8-year-old children and less in 11–12-year-old children (P > 0.05). The overall mean dmft score of both males and females is 1.49 ± 1.56; the overall mean DMFT score of both males and females is 0.57 ± 1.23. Conclusion: The present study showed that the frequency of caries was found to be higher in Northern region of Mahbubnagar. The dental caries was more in 7–8-year-old children and less in 11–12-year-old children whereas less in local villages of Mahbubnagar.
  2 7,462 668
Behavior assessment of children after placing colored restorative material: A randomized controlled trial
Sophiya Juliet, Deepa Gurunathan
July-December 2017, 2(2):66-68
DOI:10.4103/ijpr.ijpr_4_17  
Background: Children tend to have a unfound fear and anxiety. Placing coloured restoration can motivate and reduce the anxiety in the child. Aim: To assess the behaviour of the child after placement of coloured restorative material. Materials and Methods: 48 Children of 3-7 years who visited department of pedodontics and preventive dentistry with a occlusal lesion in primary molar teeth were included in the study. The child's behaviour was assessed before and after the treatment. The outcome was based on the cooperation on the child on further appointments. Results: The children who were given coloured restoration had better improvement in the behaviour when compared to that of the regular restoration which was statistical significant. Conclusion: The coloured restoration are effective motivational tool for the children and reduces anxiety which ultimately benefits better cooperation and improvement in oral hygiene maintanence.
  2 4,166 487
REVIEW ARTICLE
Cleft lip and cleft palate: Role of a pediatric dentist in its management
Rahul Kaul, Parul Jain, Subrata Saha, Subir Sarkar
January-June 2017, 2(1):1-6
DOI:10.4103/ijpr.ijpr_3_17  
Cleft lip and palate is one of the most common congenital anomalies requiring multidisciplinary care. Such anomaly causes many problems such as impaired suckling, defective speech, deafness, malocclusion, gross facial deformity, and severe psychological problems. Cleft of the lip and palate is one such condition that occurs at such a strategic place in the orofacial region and at such a crucial time that it becomes a complex congenital deformity. Pediatric dentist has a vital role to play right from the neonatal period up to phase of permanent dentition. This review describes a vital role played by pediatric dentist, may it be preventive, restorative, or the interventional care. In the present review article, we offer an extensive review of the literature found in the ISI Web of Knowledge, Index Copernicus, SCOPUS, PubMed, and Cochrane Library. The key words searched were “Cleft lip,” “Cleft Palate,” “Cleft lip and palate,' “Dentist,” “Pediatric Dentist” “Pedodontist,” “Management,” and “dental treatment.”
  2 17,539 2,603
Recent advances in pediatric esthetic anterior crowns
Aindrila Ghosh, Shabnam Zahir
July-December 2020, 5(2):35-38
DOI:10.4103/ijpr.ijpr_8_20  
Loss of anterior teeth in children can lead to hampered esthetics, neuromuscular imbalance with decreased masticatory efficiency, speech disturbance, development of parafunctional habits, and psychological problems. With the growing awareness of the esthetic options available, there is a greater demand for solutions to unsightly problems such as caries, discolored teeth, hypoplastic defects, fractures, and missing teeth in children. However, the biggest dilemma is choosing the best treatment modality for a particular patient and situation. Thus, this review highlights the various recent advances in the field of anterior crowns in pediatric esthetic dentistry along with their indications, advantages, and disadvantages.
  2 9,107 1,123
REVIEW ARTICLES
Accidental ingestion of foreign body in dental practice and its management
Vishnu Prasad
January-June 2018, 3(1):5-7
DOI:10.4103/ijpr.ijpr_33_17  
Foreign body aspiration or ingestion can be a potential complication or a life-threatening emergency situation. During routine dental treatment, the handling of dental objects requires particular care, especially with dental bridges and files. Precautionary measures have to be taken to avoid such situation. A dentist must be able to manage emergency situations in which accidental swallowing of dental instruments and materials occur. This article reviews the signs and symptoms, management, complications, and precautions of aspiration or ingestion of foreign bodies.
  2 7,485 817
Defluoridation of water using natural adsorbents
Kola Srikanth Reddy, N Venugopal Reddy, P Niharika, M Ajay Reddy, Harivinder Reddy, V Daneswari
July-December 2017, 2(2):51-54
DOI:10.4103/ijpr.ijpr_12_17  
Fluoride is often called a two-edged sword. In the human system, this fluoride has a dual personality, a destructive effect (>1.5 ppm – dental and skeletal fluorosis), and a beneficial effect (up to1.0 ppm – caries prevention and health promotion). World Health Organization recommends that the fluoride content in drinking water should be in the range of 1.0–1.5 ppm. Fluoride concentrations beyond the standards cause dental and skeletal fluorosis. Among various methods used for defluoridation of water, adsorption method is relatively simple, economical, and appropriate for drinking water treatment, especially for small communities. In this review, a list of various adsorbents and their adsorption capacities for fluoride are overviewed with various affecting parameters.
  2 11,151 1,059
CASE REPORTS
Nonsurgical endodontic management of maxillary lateral incisor with dens invaginatus and periradicular lesion
Prerna Tripathi, Ayush Razdan Singh, Pushpendra Kumar Verma, Ruchi Srivastava
July-December 2017, 2(2):81-84
DOI:10.4103/ijpr.ijpr_13_17  
Dens invaginatus is a developmental malformation resulting from invagination of the tooth crown or root before calcification has occurred. It can range from a deep fissure or pit on the lingual surfaces of anterior teeth to an occlusal pit on the posterior teeth. This article presents a case of type II dens in dente in a 14-year-old female patient, where the invagination extends beyond the cementoenamel junction in maxillary lateral incisor with a large periradicular lesion. Usually, an anomaly such as dens invaginatus remains unnoticed by the patient until any clinical sign appears. Root canal treatment of such teeth with complex root canal anatomy can be difficult because infected pulpal tissues may remain in inaccessible areas of the canal. Hence, it is important to identify this anomaly and manage it as early as possible. In the present case, a nonsurgical root canal treatment of the invagination was performed. The treatment of invagination resulted in resolution of a substantial periradicular lesion.
  1 3,296 297
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Comparison of microleakage, bond strength, and fracture strength of no etch no bond novel flowable composite as a pit and fissure sealant in comparison to the conventional sealants: An In vitro Study
Amey Manohar Panse, Malvika Chandrashekharan Nair, Amol Suresh Patil, Samhita Ramchandra Bahutule
January-June 2018, 3(1):28-32
DOI:10.4103/ijpr.ijpr_18_17  
Background: Resin-based sealants are most commonly used in the clinical practice. With the introduction of self-etch self-adhesive flowable composite, their efficacy as a sealant needs to be evaluated as they can be of great help render preventive care, especially in very uncooperative child. Aim: To evaluate the various parameters and compare the efficacy of the new material to the conventional sealant. Materials and Methods: Seventy-six noncarious primary molars were randomly assigned into two groups, Fissurit F (Group A) and Constic (Group B). Each group was further subdivided into four groups: G1– Microleakage (n = 18), G2– Fracture strength (n = 18), G3– Tensile strength (n = 20), G4– Shear strength (n = 20). The parameters were evaluated and compared to check the efficacy of the two groups. Results: Nonparametric tests Kruskal–Wallis and Mann–Whitney tests were applied to the values obtained to compare microleakage and fracture strength and comparison of shear and tensile bond strengths is done by independent t-test. Microleakage and fracture strength of Constic were found to be better, but bond strength of Fissurit F (tensile strength – 14.30 ± 4.49; shear bond strength – 6.12 ± 2.84) was more than that of Constic (tensile strength – 6.33 ± 1.47; shear bond strength – 2.06 ± 0.635). Conclusion: Use of a flowable composite without bonding agent is a good alternative for sealing pits and fissures; however, further in vitro and in vivo studies are necessary.
  1 4,024 486
Efficacy of transcutaneous electronic nerve stimulation in alleviating pain during inferior alveolar nerve block injections in pediatric dentistry
Shantanu R Choudhari, Parikrama J Solanki, Gaurav K Vispute, Swati P Goyal, Kanwaljeet D Bharti, Bhawna S Verma
July-December 2017, 2(2):69-72
DOI:10.4103/ijpr.ijpr_15_17  
Aim: This study was carried out with the aim of comparing the efficacy of Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) and 20% benzocaine gel prior to inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) injections in alleviating pain in children of 8–12 years of age. Materials and Methods: The sample included fifty children in whom TENS application was done and fifty children in whom benzocaine topical application was done prior to administration of IANB injections for the extraction of mandibular posterior teeth. Pain perception was evaluated using Wong–Bakers Facial Pain Rating Scale in both the groups. ANOVA test was used to evaluate the differences in mean pain scores between the groups. Results: The patients demonstrated significant reduction in pain during IANB when TENS was used with a mean pain score of 3.36 as compared to topical application of local anesthetic agent with a mean pain score of 4.76, indicating higher efficacy of TENS. Conclusion: Application of TENS was more comfortable and significantly reduced pain. TENS is a safe, reliable, and practical alternative to be used in pediatric dentistry.
  1 4,471 447
Comparative evaluation of various disinfectant agents to disinfect toothbrush microbiota
Prasad Jathar, Amey Panse, Aniket R Desai
January-June 2018, 3(1):12-17
DOI:10.4103/ijpr.ijpr_11_17  
Introduction: Toothbrush decontamination is essential to eliminate pathogenic microorganisms transmitted on toothbrushes during brushing from the oral cavity or from the other toothbrushes and storage area. Rinsing the toothbrush with plain tap water may not be sufficient in regular use. Hence, the aim of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of different disinfectant agents in decontaminating the toothbrushes and educate the children, parents, and the community about toothbrush decontamination. Materials and Methods: Seventeen children were asked to brush their teeth for 1 month. After 1 month, toothbrushes were collected. The bristles from these brushes were then placed in disinfectants such as 0.2% chlorhexidine (Group I), water (Group II), hydrogen peroxide (Group III), 5% sodium hypochlorite (Group IV), and Group V as a control for 12 hrs and then cultured. Results: Hydrogen peroxide (Group III solution) considerably reduced the bacterial colonies. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the use of hydrogen peroxide is a useful for every individual at regular intervals for day-to-day use for toothbrush decontamination.
  1 4,265 527
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