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  Most popular articles (Since July 12, 2016)

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Diagnostic methods for early detection of dental caries - A review
Madhumitha Mohanraj, V Ratna Prabhu, R Senthil
January-June 2016, 1(1):29-36
Management of dental caries demands early detection of carious lesions. This article provides an overview of the state of the art methodologies for the detection and assessment of early carious lesions. This review is based on PubMed for available literature on caries detection methodology and tools, using terms such as "early detection of caries," "caries detection methods or tools," "transillumination," "fluorescence," and "newer caries detection method," Conventional or the traditional methods for the detection of caries have failed to detect early incipient caries effectively. The advanced methods provide promising results in detection both early caries and also caries occurring on all surfaces of the tooth, which paves the way for a more preventive approach to caries management. Each caries detection tool has advantages and disadvantages; some perform better on certain surfaces than others. Newer diagnostic methods which are still under research may prove to be very effective for early detection of caries in the near future. The change in the paradigm to minimally invasive dentistry has ascertained the field of dentistry to a more preventive approach to caries management, which demands a proper caries risk assessment and an early detection of caries. Not all the methods accurately detect early lesions. Hence, the clinician must ascertain as to which method and diagnostic tool should be used for clinical assessment of early detection of caries.
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Smart materials-making pediatric dentistry bio-smart
Parul Jain, Rahul Kaul, Subrata Saha, Subir Sarkar
July-December 2017, 2(2):55-59
As of now, there has been no single material in dentistry that fulfills all the requirements of an ideal material. While the search for an “ideal material” continues, a newer generation of materials has been introduced. The adjective “smart” implies that these materials are able to sense changes in their environments and then respond to these changes in predetermined manners – traits that are also found in living organisms. These materials may be altered in a controlled fashion by stimulus such as stress, temperature, moisture, pH, and electric or magnetic field. Some of these are “bio-mimetic” in nature while others are “bio-responsive.” These materials would potentially allow new and groundbreaking dental therapies with a significantly enhanced clinical outcome of the treatment procedures. This paper attempts to highlight some of the currently available “smart materials” in pediatric dentistry which may over the course of years help us move toward a new era of bio-smart dentistry.
  12,746 2,318 5
Cleft lip and cleft palate: Role of a pediatric dentist in its management
Rahul Kaul, Parul Jain, Subrata Saha, Subir Sarkar
January-June 2017, 2(1):1-6
Cleft lip and palate is one of the most common congenital anomalies requiring multidisciplinary care. Such anomaly causes many problems such as impaired suckling, defective speech, deafness, malocclusion, gross facial deformity, and severe psychological problems. Cleft of the lip and palate is one such condition that occurs at such a strategic place in the orofacial region and at such a crucial time that it becomes a complex congenital deformity. Pediatric dentist has a vital role to play right from the neonatal period up to phase of permanent dentition. This review describes a vital role played by pediatric dentist, may it be preventive, restorative, or the interventional care. In the present review article, we offer an extensive review of the literature found in the ISI Web of Knowledge, Index Copernicus, SCOPUS, PubMed, and Cochrane Library. The key words searched were “Cleft lip,” “Cleft Palate,” “Cleft lip and palate,' “Dentist,” “Pediatric Dentist” “Pedodontist,” “Management,” and “dental treatment.”
  11,784 1,943 1
Crowns for primary anterior teeth
Joshua Ng Chor Yang, Geo Mani
July-December 2016, 1(2):75-78
Esthetic rehabilitation of anterior teeth in young children is a common sight in a dental clinic. Most of these young children report with rampant caries, nursing bottle caries, and fractured tooth due to trauma in the anterior region or even cases of dental caries. A major component while restoring anterior teeth is esthetics, being an important factor, especially in children as it affects their self-esteem and confidence. Also, in children, it can be challenging due to the smaller size of tooth, larger pulp chambers, and not-to-mention issues related to child behavior. Over the years, many types of crowns have been developed and advanced to aid the clinician in rehabilitating deciduous anterior teeth.
  10,673 1,688 -
Esthetic zirconia crown in pedodontics
Amit Khatri
January-June 2017, 2(1):31-33
There are different types of restorations for complete crown coverage. These restoration techniques include polycarbonate crowns, acid etched crown, stainless steel crown (SSC), open–faced SSC with veneer placed on chair side and commercially veneered SSC. Each of these techniques presents technical, functional or esthetic compromises that complicate their efficient and effective usage. Recently, zirconium dioxide ceramic prefabricated crown has been used in the treatment of primary teeth. The choice of full coverage restoration for primary teeth must provide an esthetic appearance in addition to restoring function and durability. This article presents an overview of zirconia crowns in pedodontics and a case study of full coronal restoration using zirconia crown.
  10,152 1,606 1
Laser and its use in pediatric dentistry: A review of literature and a recent update
Sauvik Galui, Shubhabrata Pal, Saikat Mahata, Subrata Saha, Subir Sarkar
January-June 2019, 4(1):1-5
Since last two decades, the use of laser in dentistry evolved in an immense way. Although soft-tissue laser was initially introduced, but with invention of new-generation laser, it is now widely used on dental hard tissue as well. Commonly used laser in dentistry includes neodymium-yttrium aluminum garnet laser, erbium: yttrium aluminum garnet, CO2, erbium chromium:yttrium scandium gallium garnet, holmium:yttrium aluminum garnet, and diode laser. Treating a pediatric patient with laser for oral and dental procedure is beneficial as it is less fearful to the child and better accepted by parents. When a clinician uses the laser for surgical or pulpal procedure, children become more cooperative and thus enhances treatment outcome. It is used for caries prevention, early diagnosis, cavity restoration, management of traumatized teeth, and minor oral surgical procedure in child patients. Although the use of laser may produce certain hazards and need some precautions, its use in pediatric dental practice seems to soon become the gold standard.
  9,175 1,642 2
Complete mouth rehabilitation of children with early childhood caries: A case report of three cases
Divya Doneria, Seema Thakur, Parul Singhal, Deepak Chauhan
January-June 2017, 2(1):37-40
Early childhood caries (ECC) is a major health concern that affects the oral health of infants and children negatively. Early loss of primary anterior teeth due to trauma or caries can cause loss of masticatory efficiency, compromised esthetics, mispronunciation of labiodentals sounds, and development of abnormal oral habits. The restoration of grossly decayed deciduous teeth especially anterior ones presents a major challenge to dentists, particularly in uncooperative children. The following case report of cases of early childhood caries documents the restoration of severely decayed deciduous teeth to improve their oral and general health and help them to gain more self-confidence.
  8,678 1,135 -
Modified band and loop space maintainer: Mayne's space maintainer
Joyson Moses, P Krithika Sekar, S Shanthosh Raj, BN Rangeeth, Sharanya Ravindran
July-December 2018, 3(2):84-86
Primary teeth play a pivotal role in preventing malocclusion of permanent dentition. When there is premature tooth loss, the space should be maintained for preserving the arch form and preventing space loss. Space maintainer is the treatment of choice in such conditions. When the conventional method is not applicable, we plan for modifications. In this clinical scenario, we have modified the crown and loop space maintainer with a single loop known as the Mayne's space maintainer.
  8,618 968 -
Defluoridation of water using natural adsorbents
Kola Srikanth Reddy, N Venugopal Reddy, P Niharika, M Ajay Reddy, Harivinder Reddy, V Daneswari
July-December 2017, 2(2):51-54
Fluoride is often called a two-edged sword. In the human system, this fluoride has a dual personality, a destructive effect (>1.5 ppm – dental and skeletal fluorosis), and a beneficial effect (up to1.0 ppm – caries prevention and health promotion). World Health Organization recommends that the fluoride content in drinking water should be in the range of 1.0–1.5 ppm. Fluoride concentrations beyond the standards cause dental and skeletal fluorosis. Among various methods used for defluoridation of water, adsorption method is relatively simple, economical, and appropriate for drinking water treatment, especially for small communities. In this review, a list of various adsorbents and their adsorption capacities for fluoride are overviewed with various affecting parameters.
  8,189 899 2
Esthetic anterior fixed functional space maintainer
Diptangshu Garai, Chiranjit Ghosh, Pradip Kumar Mandal, Sudipta Kar
July-December 2017, 2(2):90-92
Traumatic dental injury is one of the main causes of premature loss of maxillary anterior teeth in schoolgoing children, causing psychological trauma both to patient as well as parents. In that situation, choice of treatment is maintaining the space by space maintainer which may be fixed/removable or functional/nonfunctional. This article describes rehabilitation of a 4½-year-old child after avulsion of the maxillary central incisor, using fixed functional anterior esthetic space maintainer.
  8,016 819 -
Stretching new boundaries of caries prevention with silver diamine fluoride: A review of literature
Sauvik Galui, Shubhabrata Pal, Sagar Lahu Pabale, Subrata Saha, Subir Sarkar
January-June 2018, 3(1):1-4
Silver diamine fluoride can arrest dental caries and prevents its progression. By doing so, it provides an alternative care path for those patients in whom traditional restorative treatment cannot be done, for example, children lacking cooperating ability. Although silver diamine fluoride had been used as a caries preventive measure in 1970s in Japan, it had not become popular in the other part of the world. Now, many countries have recommend the use of 38% silver diamine fluoride solution for caries prevention as well as for caries arrest. Recently, The American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry provided the guidelines regarding the use of silver diamine fluoride for dental caries management in children and adolescent including those with special healthcare needs.
  7,453 1,314 2
Comprehensive management of complicated crown fracture in a 10-year-old child
Siddharth Anand, Deepa Yeshwanth Hegde, Ramakrishna Yeluri, Updesh Masih, Priti Yadav, Shailendra Kumar
January-June 2017, 2(1):46-50
Trauma to the maxillary anterior teeth is a common incidence in young patients. Pediatric dentists have to deal with such dental traumatic injuries on a regular basis in their daily routine practice. Some clinical studies have reported reattachment of fractured tooth segment using adhesive resin cement and dentine bonding agent with or without postplacement. This case report presents a comprehensive management of complicated crown fracture in the maxillary anterior teeth with reattachment of the fractured tooth segment with dual-cure adhesive resin and a prefabricated glass-reinforced composite fiber post followed by a permanent restoration.
  7,268 650 -
Evaluation of effectiveness of dental apps in management of child behaviour: A pilot study
Vidyavathi H Patil, Karan Vaid, Niraj S Gokhale, Parin Shah, Madhura Mundada, Shivayogi M Hugar
January-June 2017, 2(1):14-18
Background: We see children from all age groups, be it a toddler to a teenager, stuck up to the mobile phone playing interactive games or even browsing internet entertainment holds a major share in the field of mobile applications, be it from listening to music or playing online games. However, very little has happened in favor of pediatric dentistry or even educating the patients about the procedures of their treatment which can help reduce their fear or apprehension. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of dental apps in the management of child's anxiety and behavior. Materials and Methods: Sixty children (24 girls and 36 boys) were made to use mobile dental app called “My Little Dentist” developed by Tenlogix Games available on the Google Play Store on the android platform of the smartphones. Their anxiety levels were noted before and after playing the game using the face imaging scale. Results: The results were found to be highly significant; 86.67% patients turned from a negative to positive behavior, 11.67% from positive to definitely positive, and 1.67% from definitely negative to negative according to Frankl's behavior rating scale. Conclusion: The mobile dental app was found to be very useful in the dental setup to reduce the fear and anxiety of the pediatric patients.
  6,485 775 3
Prevalence of dental caries in school going children of both urban and rural areas in Mahbubnagar district, Telangana state, (India): An epidemiological study
Kola Srikanth Reddy, Harika Rapala, Balaji Kethineni, Harvindher Reddy, Ajay Reddy, Puppala Ravindhar
January-June 2017, 2(1):7-13
Background: Dental caries is one of the most common oral problems affecting children globally involving the people of all region and society. It can be seen in all age groups of children involving both deciduous and permanent teeth. Dental caries is a lifetime disease, and the highest priority risk group is between 6 and 12 years of age. Aims: The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of dental caries in both primary and permanent dentition among school-going children in Mahbubnagar district. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2000 children in different areas of Mahbubnagar district in the age group of 6–12 years. The dental caries status was assessed by decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT)/dmft index using the World Health Organization criteria 1997. Collected data from each patient are subjected to statistical analysis to know the prevalence of dental caries. Results: Dental caries in both primary dentition and permanent dentition was 64.2% and 26.6%, respectively. The prevalence of dental caries in primary dentition was more in 7–8-year-old children and less in 11–12-year-old children (P > 0.05). The overall mean dmft score of both males and females is 1.49 ± 1.56; the overall mean DMFT score of both males and females is 0.57 ± 1.23. Conclusion: The present study showed that the frequency of caries was found to be higher in Northern region of Mahbubnagar. The dental caries was more in 7–8-year-old children and less in 11–12-year-old children whereas less in local villages of Mahbubnagar.
  5,760 526 -
Knowledge, attitude, and practices of parents toward their children's oral health: A questionnaire survey in Bhairahawa (Nepal)
Nitin Khanduri, Namrata Singhal, Malay Mitra, Sankalp Rohatgi
July-December 2018, 3(2):59-61
Background and Aim: Parents' knowledge and attitude have a very important role in the maintenance of young children's oral health. The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practices of parents toward their children's oral health. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 parents participated in the study. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire addressing various aspects of knowledge and attitude of parents toward oral health. Results: Majority (75%) of the parents had low knowledge regarding the importance of using fluoridated toothpaste. Only 33% of parents were aware that nighttime bottle feeding can cause dental caries. Conclusion: The level of awareness among parents is relatively low, and there is a need to create more awareness about the knowledge and importance of deciduous teeth, regular dental visits among the society, and implementation of oral health awareness programs for parents.
  5,393 700 2
Dental office design and waste care management in infection control
Sindhuja Krishnan, Saravana Pandian
January-June 2016, 1(1):37-41
Infection control is the most vital and fundamental aspect of health-care practice pertaining to the faculties of medicine, surgery, or dentistry. The nature of dental procedures involves occupational exposure to blood and saliva that might carry these microorganisms. Dental health-care professionals and dental patients are, therefore, at a high risk for developing infectious diseases. This article emphasizes the importance of infection control in a dental office. It describes the protocol to be followed in a dental clinic setup. Steps in health care waste management have also been discussed. It is extremely important for a dentist to follow a protocol to facilitate cross-infection control in the office and to prevent cross-contamination between the patients, dentists, assistants, and ancillary staff. Personal protection, decontamination/sterilization of instruments and materials, and formulation of an infection control policy have been discussed.
  5,169 637 -
An unusual oropharyngeal trauma due to toothbrush in a 3-year-old child: A case report and review
MS Girish, Revathi Jaisingh, Seema Deshmukh, MD Indira
January-June 2016, 1(1):19-21
Toothbrushing as an oral hygiene measure has become an integral part of daily routine and regarded as safe for children. Toothbrush has been designed in such a way that it should not harm the soft tissues. Oropharyngeal injuries in children due to toothbrush while brushing the teeth can damage the vital tissues and vessels around the oropharynx and can end up with severe complications. Here, we report a case of a 3-year-old female child who had a severe oropharyngeal trauma while brushing was performed against to the child's wish.
  5,464 310 -
Surgical management of mucocele in buccal mucosa
G Lavanya, Jeevanandan Ganesh, E.M.G. Subramanian
January-June 2016, 1(1):26-28
Mucocele is a salivary gland lesion that occurs due to extravasation of the mucus into the fibrous connective tissue leading to a cyst-like cavity. The wall of the cavity is formed by compressed bundles of collagen fibrils and is filled with mucin. We report a case of mucocele in the right buccal mucosa due to unknown origin.
  5,096 332 -
Prognosis of replanted avulsed permanent incisors: A systematic review
Krishnapriya Suhas Nene, Vikas Bendgude
July-December 2018, 3(2):87-98
The objective of this systematic review is to use the principles of evidence-based dentistry to evaluate clinically and radiographically the prognosis of replanted avulsed permanent incisors in the pediatric age group with an immature or mature apex having an extraoral dry time up to 60 min and a follow-up period of 24 months or more. The study inclusion criteria included case reports and case series published in English. Databases used for the search were PubMed, EBSCOhost, Google Scholar, and Cochrane from January 1, 2000 to September 30, 2017. In addition, hand search of dissertations and journals on pediatric dentistry related to the topic of interest was performed in the institutional library. Contact to authors and colleagues working on similar subjects in the field was made through e-mails. Based on the moderate level of evidence available to assess the prognosis of replanted avulsed permanent incisors by clinical and radiographic evaluation, it is fair to conclude that the prognosis of the replanted teeth was best when the extraoral dry time was <15 min and the tooth was stored in osmolality-balanced media such as Hank's balanced salt solution, saline, and milk. The immature teeth showed better prognosis than mature teeth.
  4,798 619 -
Accidental ingestion of foreign body in dental practice and its management
Vishnu Prasad
January-June 2018, 3(1):5-7
Foreign body aspiration or ingestion can be a potential complication or a life-threatening emergency situation. During routine dental treatment, the handling of dental objects requires particular care, especially with dental bridges and files. Precautionary measures have to be taken to avoid such situation. A dentist must be able to manage emergency situations in which accidental swallowing of dental instruments and materials occur. This article reviews the signs and symptoms, management, complications, and precautions of aspiration or ingestion of foreign bodies.
  4,767 559 1
Evaluation of parental attitude and practice on the primary teeth of their children in Chennai: An hospital survey
Anjana Mounissamy, Joyson Moses, Jai Ganesh, M Arulpari
January-June 2016, 1(1):10-14
Introduction: Teeth are critical to the growth and development of a child. This survey evaluated the parental attitude and practices on the primary teeth of their children. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted on the parents who visited the Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Thai Moogambigai Dental College and Hospitals, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India, during October and November 2015. A total of 106 parents with 2-12 years children who visited for dental treatment of their children were involved in the study with their consent. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data, and the collected data were computed and analyzed using IBM-SPSS 19. Descriptive statistics was used; frequency distribution including number and percentage was calculated and inferences drawn. Results: Majority of the participants were from low socioeconomic status. About 78.3% of them visited a dental office when their children experienced toothache/trauma, 33% felt regular dental check is not important, 20.8% said treating primary teeth was not necessary, 10.4% used baby toothpaste, 96.2% did not use mouthwash, majority of the children brushed with toothpaste/powder only once daily, and 69% had no idea whether toothpaste contains fluoride. They were unaware of the pediatric oral health-care information provision and had poor knowledge. Conclusion: It was concluded that the pediatric dental health-care attitude and practice among the parents needs to be revisited.
  4,468 565 -
Chair-side general anesthesia for pediatric dental patients – Risky or risk free
Sonu Acharya
January-June 2018, 3(1):8-11
Dental treatment under general anesthesia (GA) may be provided in the hospital operating room or dental office on the dental chair. There are various methods of behavior management that pediatric dentists apply in their day-to-day practice which are both nonpharmacological and pharmacological. Although most of the children can be managed with nonpharmacological methods, few require pharmacological methods. Pharmacological methods such as prescribing premedications, conscious sedation, and GA. Conscious sedation and GA are slowly gaining popularity in pediatric patients. Here, we discuss the pros and cons of chairside GA in this paper.
  4,413 578 -
A comparative evaluation of formocresol and sodium hypochlorite as agents for pulpotomy in primary molars: A pilot study
K Srikanth Reddy, N Venugopal Reddy, V Daneswari, M Ajay Reddy, K Harivinder Reddy, B Rangarao
July-December 2017, 2(2):60-65
Aim: This in vivo study was carried out to assess the clinical and radiographic evaluation of pulpotomy in primary molars, following the use of formocresol (FC) versus sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) 5%. Materials and Methods: In the present study, pulpotomies were conducted on sixty primary molars of 5–8-year-old children who referred to the Department of Pediatric Dentistry. The selected teeth were equally distributed and randomly assigned into two groups of FC and NaOCl 5%. After taking the initial radiographs, standard pulpotomy was carried out using FC and NaOCl 5%; pulp chamber was filled with intermediate restorative material and restored with stainless steel crown cemented with glass ionomer cement. Results: The control (FC) and experimental (NaOCl 5%) groups demonstrated 96.3% clinical success at 3 and 6 months. The NaOCl group had 88.9% radiographic success at 3 months and 88.4% at 6 months. The FC group had 76.9% and 72% radiographic success at 3 and 6 months, respectively. No significant differences were found in clinical and radiological outcomes between two groups at 3 and 6 months (Pearson's test, Fishers exact test; P = 0.02 and P = 0.05, respectively). Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, NaOCl demonstrated clinical and radiological success comparable to FC.
  4,447 542 1
Three-dimensional assessment of root canal morphology of human deciduous molars using cone beam computed tomography: An In vitro Study
N Venugopal Reddy, V Daneswari, Ravi Patil, B Meghana, Ajay Reddy, P Niharika
January-June 2018, 3(1):36-41
Background: Endodontic treatment involves cleaning, shaping, and obturation of the root canal system which requires knowledge of root canal morphology and its commonly occurring variation. Aim: The aim of the present study was to assess the variations in number and morphology of deciduous molar teeth using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) an auxiliary imaging modality. Materials and Methods: A total of ninety recently extracted deciduous molar teeth were collected which are divided into four groups: Group I: mandibular first molars (n = 22), Group II: maxillary first molars (n = 18), Group III: mandibular second molars (n = 21), Group IV: maxillary second molars (n = 29). The length of the roots, angulation of the roots, number of the root canals, curvature of the root canals, and the type of root canals were determined using CBCT. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive statistics were used to find out the frequency, mean, standard deviation, and range of all the five parameters. Results: CBCT showed that the distobuccal root of primary maxillary molars had the greatest angulation, whereas, in deciduous mandibular molars, distal root has the greatest angulation. S-shaped canals were more common in the palatal root of maxillary molars, and curved canals were more common in the mesial root in mandibular molars. Conclusions: CBCT was found to be an effective and accurate diagnostic tool which provides an auxiliary imaging technology to assess the root canal morphology of primary teeth.
  4,455 484 2
Premature loss of primary teeth on arch dimensions in 6- to 10-year-old schoolchildren in Khammam town, Telangana state
N Venugopal Reddy, V Daneswari, G Shruti, Harivinder Reddy, Ajay Reddy, Srikanth Reddy
July-December 2018, 3(2):67-71
Background: The primary dentition plays a very important role in the child's growth and development, not only in terms of speech, chewing, appearance, and prevention of habits but also in the guidance and eruption of permanent teeth. Aim and Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of premature loss of primary teeth in 6- to 10-year-old schoolchildren in Khammam town, Telangana state, India. Settings and Design: A total of 1200 schoolchildren (600 boys and 600 girls) between 6 and 10 years of age were randomly selected for the study. Materials and Methods: An experienced examiner performed all clinical examinations under natural light. Data including age and missing tooth were collected. Alginate impressions of the study population with the missing teeth were taken, and diagnostic casts were prepared. Statistical Analysis: Microsoft Excel/2000 (Microsoft Office XP) data spreadsheet was used and later exported to the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) for Windows (version 10.0). Descriptive statistics were applied, and from the results, Chi-square tests were applied at a level of statistical significance of 5% (P < 0.05). Results: The prevalence of premature loss of primary teeth was 13.5% of the study sample. It was higher in 8-year-olds, and lower right first primary molars were the most commonly affected teeth. Conclusion: The prevalence of premature loss of primary teeth was high, and the lower primary molars were the most commonly missing teeth. Dental caries was main reason for premature loss of primary teeth followed by trauma.
  4,359 485 -